NAHDIC has been engaged in research activities over the last 20 years and has contributed more than 350 published articles to the scientific community.  Research activities at NAHDIC focus on problem solving and generating information and data to support disease control and prevention measures.  Research initiatives are conducted with NAHDIC technical partners found both within the country and abroad. This includes collaborations with university students. An average of 30 undergraduate and post-graduate (MSc and PhD) Ethiopian university students conduct their research at NAHDIC per year. Currently, there are about 24 active ongoing research projects. Some of the topics are done on bovine tuberculosis, PPR, CBBP, FMD, BVD, IBR, brucellosis and infectious bronchitis. 


Molecular Epidemiological Studies of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Sub-Saharan Africa Indicate the Presence of Large Numbers of Topotypes: Implications for Local and International Contro

Vosloo, W1*, Dwarka, RM 1,Bastos, ADS2, Esterhuysen, JJ 1, Sahle, M3,Sangare, O4

1Exotic Diseases Division, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Private Bag X05, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa, 2Department of Zoology and Entomology, Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa, 3National Animal Health Research Centre, Ethiopia, 4 Laboratoire Central Veterinaire, BP 2295, Bamako, Mali



Six of the seven serotypes of foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus occur on the African continent and numerous topotypes occur for each serotype. Due to underreporting of FMD, the current strains circulating throughout sub-Saharan Africa are in most cases not known. For both SAT-1 and SAT-2 the genetic diversity is reflected in antigenic variation and indications are that vaccine strains may be needed for each topotype. This has serious implications for control using vaccines and for choice of strains to include in international vaccine banks. The epidemiology of FMD is further complicated by the presence of large numbers of persistently infected African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and other wildlife species which together with largely uncontrolled movement of domestic animals may spread the disease over vast distances. This dearth of knowledge on FMD in Africa poses a serious threat to regions free of FMD in the face of increased international travel and the possible smuggling of illegal bush meat and other livestock products.

Risk Factors Associated with Observed Clinical Lumpy Skin Disease in Ethiopia

Gari G1, Waret-Szkuta A, Grosbois V, Jacquiet P, Roger F.


1National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center (NAHDIC), Ethiopian Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development, P.O. Box 04, Sebeta, Ethiopia 



A cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the distribution of lumpy skin disease (LSD) and associated risk factors in three main agro-climatic zones of Ethiopia. A total of 330 questionnaire surveys were collected from 44 peasant associations (PA) distributed in 15 districts. Across agro-climate zones, herd-level LSD prevalence in the midland agro-climate was significantly higher 55.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 47.5-62.6] than in highland and lowland agro-climate zones. Overall observed LSD prevalence at animal-level was 8.1% (95% CI 7.3-8.9) and observed mortality was 2.12% (95% CI 1.73-2.6). The odds ratio (OR) of LSD occurrence in midland vs. highland and lowland vs. highland zones was 3.86 (95% CI 2.61-5.11) and 4.85 (95% CI 2.59-7.1), respectively. Significantly high risk of LSD occurrence was associated with communal grazing and watering management (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.02-6.18) and introduction of new cattle (OR 8.5, 95% CI 6.0-11.0). Our findings describe the distribution of LSD in different agro-climates in Ethiopia along with associated risk factors, and can help shed light on the epidemiology of LSD in other African countries suffering from the disease.

High Prevalence of Bovine Tuberculosis in Dairy Cattle in Central Ethiopia: Implications for the Dairy Industry and Public Health

Gari G1, Waret-Szkuta A, Grosbois V, Jacquiet P, Roger F.


1Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

2National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center, Sebeta, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

3 School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Republic of Ireland

4Centre for Molecular Microbiology and Infection, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

5Department for Bovine Tuberculosis, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, Surrey, United Kingdom

6Swiss Tropical and PublicHealth, Basel, Switzerland



Ethiopia has the largest cattle population in Africa. The vast majority of the national herd is of indigenous zebu cattle maintained in rural areas under extensive husbandry systems. However, in response to the increasing demand for milk products and the Ethiopian government’s efforts to improve productivity in the livestock sector, recent years have seen increased intensive husbandry settings holding exotic and cross breeds. This drive for increased productivity is however threatened by animal diseases that thrive under intensive settings, such as bovine tuberculosis (BTB), a disease that is already endemic in Ethiopia. An extensive study was conducted to: estimate the prevalence of BTB in intensive dairy farms in central Ethiopia; identify associated risk factors; and characterize circulating strains of the causative agent, Mycobacterium bovis. The comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT), questionnaire survey, post-mortem examination, bacteriology, and molecular typing were used to get a better understanding of the BTB prevalence among dairy farms in the study area. Based on the CIDT, our findings showed that around 30% of 2956 tested dairy cattle from 88 herds were positive for BTB while the herd prevalence was over 50%. Post-mortem examination revealed gross tuberculous lesions in 34/36 CIDT positive cattle and acid-fast bacilli were recovered from 31 animals. Molecular typing identified all isolates as M. bovis and further characterization by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing indicated low strain diversity within the study area.This study showed an overall BTB herd prevalence of 50% in intensive dairy farms in Addis Ababa and surroundings, signalling an urgent need for intervention to control the disease and prevent zoonotic transmission of M. bovis to human populations consuming dairy products coming from these farms. It is suggested that government and policy makers should work together with stakeholders to design methods for the control of BTB in intensive farms in Ethiopia.

Epidemiological Survey on Brucellosis in Sheep and Goats in Selected Pastoral and Agro-pastoral Lowlands of Ethiopia

Sintayehu G 1,2,  Melesse B1,  Abayneh D1  Sintayehu A1 ,  Melaku S1,  Alehegne W 1,  Mesfin S1,  De Blas I 4,  Casal J 2,3,  Allepuz A 2,3,  Martin-Valls G 1,  Africa T 1,  Abera K1

1National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center (NAHDIC), P.O. Box 04, Sebeta, Ethiopia,

2Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA), Universitat Autonoma deBarcelona (UAB), Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries (IRTA), Campus de laUniversitat Autónoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain, 3Departament de Sanitati Anatomia Animals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain, 4Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Zaragoza, Miguel Servet 177, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain




An epidemiological survey was conducted in pastoral regions of Ethiopia to investigate the distribution of brucellosis in sheep and goats. Between November 2004 and December 2007, a total of 6,201 serum samples were collected from 67 randomly selected peasant associations, 25 districts and eight pastoral zones of Ethiopia. The Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and complement fixation test were used in series. Samples for bacteriology were collected from three export abattoirs, where 285 goats were randomly selected and tested by RBPT three days before slaughter. Tissue samples were collected from 14 strongly positive goats and cultured in dextrose agar and Brucella agar base. To confirm and subtype the isolates, staining, biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction were used. The overall standardized seroprevalence of brucellosis was 1.9%, ranging from 0.07% in Jijiga zone to 3.3% in Borena zone. There was statistically significant variation among the studied regions, zones, districts and peasant associations (p < 0.05). Male goats and sheep were twice as likely to test positive as females (relative risk [RRJ: 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.7-3.4; x2 = 21.05, p < 0.05). Adults (older than 1.5 years) were three times more likely to test positive than younger animals (RR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.14-6.73; chi2 = 5.18, p < 0.05). Goats were around four times more likely to be infected than sheep (RR: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.4-6.1; chi2 = 36.99, p < 0.05). Brucella melitensis was isolated from 2 of the 14 samples analyzed. The widespread distribution of brucellosis in goats and sheep in these areas justifies the use of control measures to minimize the economic losses and public health hazards.

Keywords: Brucellosis, Complement fixation test, Identification, Isolation, Prevalence, Rose Bengal test

Sero-prevalence of Bovine Brucellosis and Associated Risk Factors in and around Alage District, Ethiopia

Asgedom1, Delesa Damena1* and Reta Duguma2


1National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center, P. O. Box 04, Sebeta, Oromia, Ethiopia

2Department of Clinical Studies, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, P. O. Box 34, Bishoftu, Oromia, Ethiopia.





Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease with economic and public health impact, particularly for human and animal populations within developing countries that relay on livestock production. A cross sectional study was conducted between October 2013 and March 2014 in and around Alage district to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis and associated risk factors. A total of 804 sera samples; 421 from cattle managed under extensive production system and 383 from cattle managed under intensive production system were collected. Multistage cluster sampling method was employed to sample unvaccinated cattle above 6 months of age. Rose Bengal Plate Test and c-ELISA were used in serial for detection of antibodies against Brucella species. The overall seroprevalence was 2.4 %, and herd level seroprevalence was 45.9 %. A prevalence of 3.3 and 1.3 % was recorded in the extensive and intensive farms respectively. Among the three sites, seropositivity of 3.4 % in Naka, 3.3 % in Negelewudisha and 1.3 % in Alage were recorded. Risk factors such as age, sex, number of service per conception, calving interval and reproductive status were associated with serostatus of brucellosis. Taken as a whole, cattle in both intensive and extensive production systems are endemically infected by brucellosis at low level in the study areas. This warrants the need of integrated intervention strategies to minimize the spread of the disease in animals and reduce the risk of transmission to humans.

Keywords: Alage, Bovine brucellosis, Seroprevalence, Risk factors, Intensive and extensive farms

Incidence of Heifer Mastitis and Identification of Major Associated Pathogens in Dairy Farms at Wolaita Soddo Town, Southern Ethiopia

Ashenafi Kiross Wubishet1, Tesfaye Sisay Tesema2, Muuz Gebriu Sahile3, Biniam Tadesse Derib1, AklilKu Feleke Haile4, Hagose Asegedom Wedeabyezgi1


1Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

2National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center, Sebeta, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

3 School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Republic of Ireland

4Centre for Molecular Microbiology and Infection, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

5Department for Bovine Tuberculosis, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, Surrey, United Kingdom

6Swiss Tropical and PublicHealth, Basel, Switzerland




The replacement stock is one of the vital parts of dairying no dairy farmer can afford to overlook. Although heifers, as calves and as primiparae, have been thought of as a group as free of mastitis, many studies indicated that clinical mastitis (CM) was even higher in heifers during calving than multifarious cows. The present longitudinal study was conducted to assess the incidence of heifer mastitis, to isolate and identify the causative pathogens and their susceptibility profile against some antimicrobials. By using convenience sampling method a total of 28 heifers from two sampling point (large scale dairy farms [1] and small holders’ cooperative dairy farms [2] were followed and sampled throughout study period. Physical examinations of udder and milk and California mastitis Test (CMT) was applied detect clinical and subclinical mastitis, respectively. Accordingly, a total of 112 quarters were examined. The incidence of mastitis per gland at risk was 60.7% and the spontaneous cure rate of infected quarters was 24.18%. Incidence of heifers’ intramammary infections (IMI) in the study area was highest at calving (35.7%). Infection per quarter revealed that 43 /112 (38.3%) of which 9/43 (20.9%) quarters were clinical and 34/43 (79.0%) quarters were sub clinical type of mastitis. However, 5(4.5%) of the total quarters examined were blind. Incidence of mastitis in rear quarters was significantly higher than front quarters.

Prevalence and molecular characteristics of 16s rRN Amethylase gene rmtB among Amikacin Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from South Korea


Kuastros Mekonnen Belaynehea,d,Ho Geun Won a,b, In Joong Yoon b, Han Sang Yooa,c,*



a Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

bChung Ang Vaccine Laboratory, Daejeon, Republic of Korea

cInstitute of Green Bio Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang, Republic of Korea


dNational Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center  (NAHDIC), Sebeta, Ethiopia





Production of 16S rRNAmethylases by Gram-negative organisms has emerged as a novelmechanism for high-level resistance to aminoglycosides. Between 2015 and 2017, 636 distinct commensal Escherichia coli isolates were collected from different farms in South Korea to determine the prevalence and molecular characteristics of 16S rRNAmethylasegene. The positive rates of 16S rRNAmethylase gene, rmtB, among all isolates and amikacin-resistant isolates were 1.1% (7/636) and 100% (7/7), respectively. Moreover, high-level aminoglycoside resistance (MIC ≥ 512µg/ml) could be transferred by conjugation experiment from three out of seven rmtB-positive donors to a recipient strain with transfer efficiencies between 1.73X10-2 to 5.1X10-3. This is the first report of prevalence of the 16S rRNAmethylase gene rmtB among E. coli isolated from food-producing animals in South Korea.

Keywords: E. coli, 16S RMTase gene, amikacin resistance, transferability.

Keywords: equine herpesviruses, respiratory disease, donkeys and horses, Ethiopia

Detection of Equine Herpesvirus (EHV) -1, -2, -4 and -5 in Ethiopian Equids with and without Respiratory Problems and Genetic Characterization of EHV-2 and EHV-5 Strain 

Getnet Abie Mekonnena,f,*, Andrew J.K. Conlanb,
Stefan Bergc, Birhanu Teshome Ayeled,e, Alemseged Alemua,
Sintayehu Gutaa, Mateios Lakewa, Biniam Tadessea, Solomon
Gebrea, James L.N. Woodb, Gobena Amenif, The ETHICOBOTS


aNational Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center, P.O. Box 04, Sebeta, Ethiopia bDisease Dynamics Unit, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES, United Kingdom

cBacteriology Department, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Weybridge, Surrey, United Kingdom

dDepartment of Statistics, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia

eDivision of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, South Africa

 fAklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia





Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has become an economically important disease in dairy herds found in and around Addis Ababa City and is emerging in regional cities like Gondar, Hawassa and Mekelle because of the establishment of dairy farms in the milk sheds of the secities. Across-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of BTB and identify associated risk factors was conducted between February 2016 and March 2017. A total of 174 herds comprising of 2,754 dairy cattle in the cities of Gondar, Hawassa and Mekelle were tested using the Single Intradermal Comparative Cervical Tuberculin (SICCT) test. Data on herd structure, animal origin, body condition, housing condition, farm hygiene, management and biosecurity practices were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Generalized Linear Models (GLM) and Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) were used to analyze the herd and animal level risk factors, respectively. The herd prevalence was 22.4% (95% CI: 17–29%) while the animal prevalence was 5.2% (95%CI:4–6%)atthecut-off>4mm.Theherdprevalencerose to 65.5% (95% CI: 58–72%) and the animal prevalence rose to 9% (95% CI: 8–10%) when the severe interpretation of>2mm cut-off was applied. The mean within-herd prevalence in positive farms at the cut-off> 4mmwas 22.7% (95% CI: 15–31%).At the herd level, the analysis showed thatherd size, farm hygiene, feeding condition and biosecurity were significantly associated with BTB status, while new cattle introductions showed only borderline significance and that age of farm, housing condition, farmers’ educational status and animal health care practice were not significant. At the animal level, the results showed that age and animal origin were identified as significant predictors for BTB positivity but sex and body condition score were not related to BTB status. Descriptive analysis revealed that herds having ‘BTB history’ showed slightly higher likelihood of being BTB positive compared to farms having no previous BTB exposure. In conclusion, this study showed relatively lower average prevalence in the emerging dairy regions as compared to the prevalence observed in and around Addis Ababa City, warranting for implementation of control program at this stage to reduce or possibly stop further transmission of BTB.


Keywords: Bovine tuberculosis Cattle Prevalence Risk factors Emerging dairy sector Ethiopia

Equine Herpesvirus-1 Myeloencephalopathy, an Emerging Threat of Working Equids in Ethiopia

H. Negussie1, 2, D. Gizaw3, L. Tesfaw4, Y. Li1,
K. Oguma5, H. Sentsui5, T. S. Tessema6 and H.J. Nauwynck1


1Laboratory of Virology, Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium

2 College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, Debre Ziet, Ethiopia

3 National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center, Sebeta, Ethiopia

4 National Veterinary Institute, Debre zeit, Ethiopia

5 School of Veterinary Medicine, Nihon University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan


6 Institute of Biotechnology, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia



Although Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy (EHM) is a sporadic and relatively uncommon manifestation of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), it has the potential for causing devastating outbreaks in horses. Up till now, there were no reported EHM outbreaks in donkeys and mules. This study describes the isolation and molecular characterization of EHV-1 from clinically EHM-affected horses (n = 6), mules (n = 3) and donkeys (n = 82) in Ethiopia during outbreaks from May 2011 to December 2013. The incidence of EHM cases was higher from April to mid-June. EHM in donkeys was more severe and death without clinical signs of paralysis, and recumbency was frequently observed. The main age of affected equines ranged from 7 to 10 years (n = 51; 56.0%), and females (n = 58; 63.7%) were more affected than males. The incidence of neuropathogenic (D752 ) and non-neuropathogenic (N752 ) variants of EHV-1 from EHM-affected equines in Ethiopia was assessed by sequencing the DNA polymerase gene (ORF30) of the EHV-1 isolates. The results indicated that from the total of 91 clinically affected equines, 90 (98.9%) of them had an ORF30 D752 genotype. An ORF30 N752 variant was only found in one donkey. Analysis of ORF68 as grouping marker for geographical differences showed that the Ethiopian EHV-1 isolates belong to geographical group 4. Due to the fatal nature of EHV-1 in donkeys, it would be interesting to examine the pathogenesis of EHM in this species. At present, there is no vaccine available in Ethiopia, and therefore, outbreaks of EHV-1 should be controlled by proper management adaptations. In addition, it is important to test the efficacy of the commercial vaccines not only in horses, but also in donkeys and mules

Surveillances of Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza in the Rift Valley Areas of Eastern Showa Zone

Redeat B1, Abera .K1, Delesa D1, Melaku S1

1National Animal Health Diagnostic
and Investigation Center (NAHDIC), P.O. Box 04, Sebeta, Ethiopia



Newcastle disease (ND) remains a constant threat to the poultry industry and is a limiting disease for poultry producers worldwide, It is one of the most important disease with high mortality and severe economic losses for the poultry industry in Ethiopia. A cross sectional studies were conducted from December, 2014 to April 2015 to determine the prevalence of Newcastle disease and Avian infuelenza in and around The rift valley lakes and village chicken at Adama and Bishoftu. Conducted for laboratory diagnosis molecular techniques and Heamagllutination /heamaglutination inhibition methods of detection were applied. A total 400 swab samples and 200 fecal droplets from rift valley lakes and surrounding village chickens were collected by Simple random sampling.  Two hundred fifty  swab samples were tested by real time PCR 50 samples were positive and 150 swab samples were tested by HA/HI methods after propagation in embryonated egg, out of those 25 samples were positive.  In the total result revealed that the prevalence of Newcastle disease (18.75 %) (400, 75) 200(pool of five) fecal droplet Samples were tested by real time PCR for detection of M-gene avian influenza virus 20 (pool of five) samples were positive.  Those M gene positive samples were retested for sub type of H7 and H5 which are the cause of highly pathogenic AI.  The result was got negative. Therefore the results of this study indicated that the village chicken flock is endemically infected with Newcastle disease virus which could pose threat to commercial poultry farm. Therefore attention should be given for implementing further surveillance investigation of Newcastle disease virus in village chickens and wild birds.

Keywords; Avian Influenza, Newcastle disease, Hemaggulutination inhibition test, RT-PC

Sero-surveillance and Serotyping of Foot- and-Mouth Disease Virus in Different Regional States in Ethiopia

Asamenew Tesfaye1*, Mesfin Sehale1, Daniel Gizaw1,
Mengistu Nemera1 and Ayelech Muluneh1

1National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center (NAHDIC), P.O. Box, 04, Sebeta, Ethiopia




A cross-sectional epidemiological survey and an outbreak investigation were conducted between 2013/14-2014/15 in order to determine the seroprvalence and identify serotypes of FMDV in different regions (Tigray, Oromiya, SNNP and Gambella) in the country.  Sera samples were collected from 600 bovine and 246 caprine species in Tigray, Oromia and SNNP regions, and 16white-earedkob (Kobus kob leucotis) from Gambella National Park. Out of 862 serum samples an overall prevalence of 51.9% (n=447) was sero-positive for FMDV antibodies. An overall sero-prevalence of 40.7% (n=135), 65.7% (n=69) and 59.4% (n=243) was detected in Tigray, Oromiya and SNNP regional states, respectively. The prevalence of FMD was higher in female than male animal in Tigray 43.9% (n=82) and Borena and Segen zone 72.8% (n=147) located in Oromiya and SNNP regions respectively. Moreover, the sample collected from caprine in Borena and Segen zone indicated that the prevalence was higher in bovine 68.7 %( n=184)   as compared to caprine, 52% (n=128) species. Serum samples collected from white-eared-kob (Kobus kob leucotis) from Gambella National Park was found negative for FMDV antibodies.  An attempt was also made to identify the serotypes of FMDV virus from a total of 117 samples (tissue, probiang samples, and swab and serum samples) and serotypes O, A and SAT-2 were detected. Serotype O was the major one circulating in the regions. This survey showed that FMD is an important livestock disease that needs designing appropriate control strategies through restricting livestock movement and using vaccines containing the circulating FMDV serotypes in the concerned areas.


Keywords: FMDV, Prevalence, Serotypes, Survey


Participatory  Disease  Surveillance  (PDS)  of  Sheep  and  Goats  Diseases  in  Selected  Districts  of  Afar  Regional State: Particular focus on Pestes des Petit Ruminants (PPR) and Sheep and Goat Pox Disease (SGP)

Getachew Gari1, Gedlu Mekonnen2, Demeke Sibhat1, Ashebir Abebe1, Mesfin Sahle1, Getnet Abie1


1National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation center (NAHDIC)


2Food and Agricultural Organization
of the United Nation, Sub-regional Office for East Africa, Addis Ababa



Participatory disease surveillance uses a participatory technique for the collection of qualitative epidemiological information within the community observations and existing veterinary knowledge. Participatory disease surveillance was conducted to assess and prioritize the major diseases of sheep and goat in selected districts of Afar Regional state from July to September 2012 and specifically to understand the status of PPR and SGP diseases. Three Kebeles from each district were selected out of four districts based on representativeness and a total number of twelve Kebeles were selected. Elite informants were selected purposively to collect in-depth information and to community informants were included in each PDS process. A total of 500 sera samples were also tested for antibody against PPR virus using competitive Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent (C-ELISA). The informants ranked the livestock species based on the economic value for their livelihood as goats, camel, cattle, sheep, donkey and chicken from the top priority to the least in descending order. Among listed diseases, respiratory syndrome/CCPP, SGP and tick and tick-borne diseases for goats and respiratory syndrome, diarrhea syndrome, tick infestation and SGP diseases for Sheep were the most priority disease problems top ranked by proportional piling. PPR outbreak was reported in Chifra district and the informants ranked among the top priority disease in goats. High sero-prevalence of antibody against PPR 78% (95%CI: 74.4-81.6) was detected in the study population which might be from natural infection or PPR vaccination carried out in all districts. The sero-prevalence in goats was higher than in sheep 84.1 % and 70.7% respectively. In conclusion, the priority disease problems identified should be given due attention and further epidemiological studies are required to generate information used for the future control endeavor.

Keywords: Afar, Goat, Participatory disease surveillance, Sheep, PPR, Sheep and goat pox disease

Identification of a New Genotype of African swine fever Virus in Domestic Pigs from Ethiopia

Achenbach JE1, Gallardo C2, Nieto-Pelegrín E3,4, Rivera-Arroyo B3,4, Degefa-Negi T5, Arias M2, Jenberie S5, Mulisa DD6, Gizaw D6, Gelaye E1,5, Chibssa TR1,6, Belaye A5, Loitsch A7, Forsa M6, Yami M5, Diallo A1, Soler A2, Lamien CE1, Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM3,4.

1Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria

2European Union Reference Laboratory for ASF: Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal, INIA, Madrid, Spain

3OIE Reference Laboratory for ASF: VISAVET Health Surveillance Centre, Universidad Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain

4Animal Health Department, Universidad Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain

5National Veterinary Institute, Debre Ziet, Ethiopia

6National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center (NAHDIC), Sebeta, Ethiopia

7Institute for Veterinary Disease Control, Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety, Mödling, 



African swine fever (ASF) is an important emerging transboundary animal disease (TAD), which currently has an impact on many countries in Africa, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Russian Federation. The current situation in Europe shows the ability of the virus to rapidly spread, which stands to threaten the global swine industry. At present, there is no viable vaccine to minimize spread of the disease and stamping out is the main source of control. In February 2011, Ethiopia had reported its first suspected outbreaks of ASF. Genomic analyses of the collected ASF virus (ASFV) strains were undertaken using 23 tissue samples collected from domestic swine in Ethiopia from 2011 to 2014. The analysis of Ethiopian ASFVs partial p72 gene sequence showed the identification of a new genotype, genotype XXIII that shares a common ancestor with genotypes IX and X, which comprise isolates circulating in Eastern African countries and the Republic of Congo. Analysis of the p54 gene also followed the p72 pattern and the deduced amino acid sequence of the central variable region (CVR) of the B602L gene showed novel tetramer repeats not previously characterized.

Keywords: CVR, African swine fever, Ethiopia, genotype, p72

Sero-prevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease in Cattle in Borena Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

Asamenew Tesfaye, Mesfin Sehale, Ashebir
Abebe, Ayelech Muluneh, Daniel Gizaw

National Animal Health Diagnostic and
Investigation Center (NAHDIC), P.O. Box, 04, Sebeta, Ethiopia




A cross-sectional study was carried out between April and November 2015 to investigate the sero-prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in cattle in Borena zone using 3ABC-Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) to detect antibody against foot-and-mouth disease virus and semi structured questionnaire. A total of 363 sera samples were collected from nine peasant associations found in three different districts. An overall seroprevalence of 42.7% (95%: CI= 37.7-47.84) was found during the study. There was statistically significant difference among the districts (χ2 = 10.43, p=0.005) and the highest prevalence was found in Dire district which accounted for 52.8% (95%: CI, 44.0-61.4). The highest sero-prevalence was recorded in Soda peasant association of Dire district and Surupa peasant association of Yabello district which accounted for 65.5% (95%: CI, 49.4-78.5) and 65.0% (95%: CI= 40.4-78.5), respectively. Statistical significant difference in footand- mouth disease seroprevalence (χ2=31.1, p=0.000) was found among the peasant associations. Similarly, there was significance difference (χ2=17.4, p=0.000) in the prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease between age groups. Though the seroprevalence foot-and-mouth disease was higher in females than in males, there was no significant difference (χ2=1.63, p=0.202) between sex. The different risk factors analyzed during this study indicated that, peasant associations (PAs), district and age were seen to be significantly associated (p<0.05) with the seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease. The questionnaire survey revealed that foot-and-mouth disease outbreak was commonly seen during June to August (Short rainy season) and December to February (Long dry season), locally called Adolessa and Bona, respectively. Younger (1-3 years) animals were most susceptible than calf and adults (>3years). Moreover, an extrinsic factor like dry season enforces pastoralist to travel a longer distance to look for grazing lands and water sources that creates suitable conditions for foot-and-mouth disease transmission between infected and susceptible animals. Therefore, foot-and-mouth disease is an endemic and transboundary animal disease in Borena zone that calls for an effective control strategies to be in place.

 Keywords: Borena, FMD, Questionnaire survey, Sero-prevalence, 3ABC-ELISA



A Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia Outbreak on Research Farm in Ethiopia, and Its Dynamics over an Eight Month Perio

G. Almaw 1*, M. Duguma 2, A. Wubetie 1, G. Tuli 1, T. Koran 1

National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center (NAHDIC), P.O. Box, 04, Sebeta, Ethiopia



Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) was recognised on Bako Agricultural Research Farm, in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia, for the first time on 5 May 2011. The outbreak was investigated by combining recognition of clinical signs, post-mortem examination, mycoplasma isolation and serological testing using competitive Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (c-ELISA). The clinical cases were monitored for eight months; sick animals were treated with a range of antibiotics and isolated if necessary. The outbreak of CBPP was confirmed both bacteriologically and serologically and had spread to almost the entire herd (96.7%) within the eight-month observation period. Of the animals that recovered after antibiotic treatment, 12.3% fell sick again, showed typical signs of CBPP and were considered to be carriers. The role of treatment in the prevention of the spread of CBPP was minimal. Newly purchased animals that were not tested and quarantined before being introduced onto the farm were suspected to have been the most probable source of infection.

Keywords: Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, Ethiopia, Outbreak.


Detection of Equine Herpesvirus (EHV) -1, -2, -4 and -5 in Ethiopian Equids with and without Respiratory Problems and Genetic Characterization of EHV-2 and EHV-5 Strain 

H. Negussie1, 2, D. Gizaw3,L. Tesfaw4, Y. Li1, K. Oguma5, H. Sentsui5,T. S. Tessema6 and H. J. Nauwynck1

1Laboratory of Virology, Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium

2College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, Debre Ziet, Ethiopia

3 National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center, Sebeta, Ethiopia

4 National Veterinary Institute, Debre zeit, Ethiopia

5School of Veterinary Medicine, Nihon University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan

6 Institute of Biotechnology, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia



Infections with equine herpesviruses (EHVs) are widespread in equine populations worldwide. Whereas both EHV-1 and EHV-4 produce well-documented respiratory syndromes in equids, the contribution of EHV-2 and EHV-5 to disease of the respiratory tract is still enigmatic. This study describes the detection and genetic characterization of EHVs from equids with and without clinical respiratory disease. Virus-specific PCRs were used to detect EHV-1, -2, -4 and -5. From the total of 160 equids with respiratory disease, EHV-5 was detected at the highest prevalence (23.1%), followed by EHV-2 (20.0%), EHV-4 (8.1%) and EHV-1 (7.5%). Concurrent infections with EHV-2 and EHV-5 were recorded from nine (5.2%) diseased horses. Of the total of 111 clinically healthy equids, EHV-1 and EHV-4 were never detected whereas EHV-2 and EHV-5 were found in 8 (7.2%) and 18 (16.2%) horses, respectively. A significantly higher proportion of EHV-2-infected equids was observed in the respiratory disease group (32/160, 20.0%; P = 0.005) compared to those without disease (8/111; 7.2%). EHV-2-positive equids were three times more likely to display clinical signs of respiratory disease than EHV-2-negative equids (OR 3.22, 95% CI: 1.42–7.28). For EHV-5, the observed difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.166). The phylogenetic analysis of the gB gene revealed that the Ethiopian EHV-2 and EHV-5 strains had a remarkable genetic diversity, with a nucleotide sequence identity among each other that ranged from 94.0 to 99.4% and 95.1 to 100%, respectively. Moreover, the nucleotide sequence identity of EHV-2 and EHV-5 with isolates from other countries acquired from GenBank ranged from 92.9 to 99.1% and 95.1 to 99.5%, respectively. Our results suggest that besides EHV- 1 and EHV-4, EHV-2 is likely to be an important contributor either to induce or predispose equids to respiratory disease. However, more work is needed to better understand the contribution of EHV-2 in the establishment of respiratory disease.

Keywords: equine herpesviruses, respiratory disease, donkeys and horses, Ethiopia

Sero-Prevalence of Brucellosis in Goats Purchased for Slaughter in Selected Export Abattoirs, Ethiopia

Saddam Mohammed1,
Getachew Tuli2

Seleshi Nigatu1 and 

Gizat Alema 2



1Department of Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar, Ethiopia


2 National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center, Sebeta, Ethiopia






A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2014 to April 2015 to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in selected sheep and goat product export abattoirs and to assess the possible association of different epidemiological risk factors with the occurrence of the disease. A total of 450 sera were collected from goats in those selected export abattoirs, using systematic random sampling technique. Rose Bengal Plate Test was used as a screening test and detected 1.56% (N=7) of the samples as sero positive. Up on further testing by CFT for confirmation, only 1.11% (N=5) of the samples were positive. In this study there was no statistically significant relationship observed between the risk factors like age, origin and sex (P>0.05), although higher prevalence was observed in adults (1.97%), but statistically significant relationship was observed between sero-prevalence and body condition of animals, where higher prevalence was observed in poor body conditioned goats (P<0.05). Even though the overall prevalence observed in this study was relatively low, the finding still has the capability to indicate the presence of the disease and the importance of intervention in the areas from which the goats are supplied or produced as there is risk of spread of the disease which is economically important. Prevalence of the disease in those export abattoirs may lead to prohibition of export of slaughtered goats to Middle East and other countries to preclude risk of zoonosis. This in turn results in loss of income from the export sector. Therefore, awareness creation for animal owners and implementation of strategic control measure is necessary to prevent further spread of the disease in the study area.


Key words: Brucellosis, CFT, Abattoirs, Goats, RBPT, Cross Sectional

A Cross-sectional Study on Salmonella in Apparently Healthy Sheep and Goats Slaughtered at Elfora and Luna Export Abattoirs, Ethiopia

Feyisa Kuma1,Matios Lakew2*, Tafesse Koran2, Abebe Olani2,Mekdes Tamiru2, Letebrehan Yimesgen2, Tilahun Zenebe2and Firmaye Gerbi1


1School of Veterinary Medicine, Wollega University, 

P. O. Box 395, Nekemte, Ethiopia

2National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center, 

P. O. Box 04, Sebeta, Ethiopia






A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2015 and March 2016 on apparently healthy slaughtered sheep and goats, and clean knife at Luna and Elfora export abattoirs located at Modjo and Bishoftu towns to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in sheep and goats, to assess the hygienic condition of flaying knife, and to isolate and identify the prevalent Salmonella sub-species. A total of 525 samples consisting of cecum (n=122), liver (n=122), mesenteric lymph nodes (n=122), abdominal muscle (n=122) from 44 sheep and 78 goats and 37 pooled knife samples were collected. The samples were examined for the presence of Salmonella following the conventional techniques of ISO standard and using OMNILOG bacterial identification system, GEN III microplate for confirmation and sub species identification. From the total of 122 animals examined, 21 (17.21%) were positive of which 12 (9.83%) were sheep and 9 (7.38%) were goats, and none of the samples from pooled knife swabs were positive for Salmonella. Statistically significant difference (P=0.04) in the prevalence of Salmonella was observed between the two species. The frequency of isolation was 10 (3.89%) and 11 (4.10%) from Luna and Elfora abattoirs, respectively. As a result, there was no significant difference (P =0.884) in the prevalence of Salmonella isolation between the two abattoirs. Of the total 488 tissue samples examined from apparently healthy slaughtered sheep and goat, 21 (4.3%) samples were Salmonella positive. Salmonella was isolated from 6.56% mesenteric lymph nodes, 5.73% cecum, 4.09% liver and 0.82% abdominal muscle samples. However, there was no significant difference between tissues (P=0.13). From the 21 isolated Salmonella species, 20 of them were confirmed to be the pathogenic Salmonella enterica subspp. enterica and 1 isolate was the non-pathogenic Salmonella enterica subspp. salamae. The results of this study showed the potential risk of sheep and goats as sources of pathogen for humans in the study area. These findings stressed the need for implementation of preventing close contact of offal and carcass during evisceration.


Key words: Elfora, goats, knife, luna, prevalence, Salmonella, sheep, sub species

Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Brucellosis in Abattoir Workers at Debre Zeit and Modjo Export Abattoir, Central Ethiopi

Amanuel Tsegay, Getachew Tuli, Tesfu Kassa and Nigatu Kebede





Brucellosis is one of the major zoonoses globally with great veterinary and public health importance, particularly in developing countries where people are having frequent contact with livestock and animal products. This cross sectional study was carried out from November 2013 to May 2014 to determine the seroprevalence and assess the potential risk factors of brucellosis in abattoir workers of five export abattoirs at Debre Ziet and Modjo, Central Ethiopia. Serology and structured questionnaire were the methods used. In this study, 156 abattoir workers participated in the questionnaire survey and among them, 149 agreed for blood sample collection. Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test were conducted using sera samples at serology laboratory of the National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center. Data collection sheets were used to gather information on possible risk factors believed to influence the spread of Brucella infection in abattoir workers such as sex, age, marital status, duration on job, types of work, educational level, etc. and further information obtained include knowledge of brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases infection, symptoms of the disease, milk and meat consumption habits and work related risk factors. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used for data analysis. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in abattoir workers was found to be 4.7 and 1.3% using Rose Bengal plate test and Compliment fixation test, respectively. Based on the questionnaire survey, 66 (44.2%) and 85 (53.21%) of abattoir workers were aware of brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases, and 29 (18.6%) and 21 (13.5%) were using gloves and cover their mouth while slaughtering, respectively. Brucellosis in abattoir workers could be prevented by using protective closing and measures. Concerned body should educate occupationally exposed groups and the general public regarding e prevention and control of brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases.

Keywords: Abattoirs workers, Brucellosis, CFT, RBPT, Seroprevalence, Ethiopia

Sero-prevalence of Bovine Brucellosis and Its Associated Risk Factors in Becho district, South West Shewa, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

Amanuel Tsegay, Getachew Tuli, Tesfu Kassa and Nigatu Kebede


1Hawassa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hawassa, Ethiopia

2National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center, Ethiopia




A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected areas of Becho district, Oromia regional state from December, 2018 to May, 2019 to estimate the sero-prevalence of bovine brucellosis in the study area and identify the associated risk factors for the seropositivity. Simple random sampling method was used for sampling each herd and animal during serum collection, and risk factors accessed through interviewee of the animal owners. A total of 384 serum samples were collected from cattle of above 6 months of age and sera were initially screened with Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and those samples found positive by RBPT were further tested by Indirect Enzyme-linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (I-ELISA) for confirmation. Based on the result, 13(3.39%) were positive using RBPT and the overall sero-prevalence of bovine brucellosis at animal-level estimated to be 4(1.04%) based on I-ELISA result. At herds’ level, an overall sero-prevalence of 5.48% was obtained. Pearson’s Chi-square revealed that the presence of abortion history, retained fetal membrane and breed type were significantly associated with the seropositivity of bovine brucellosis (p<0.05) with Chi-square value of 38.2, 5.76 and 3.99 and P-value of 0.000, 0.016 and 0.046, respectively. The odds of having brucellosis increased by 12.4 times in cow with history of abortion compared to cow without the history, increased by 4.5 times  in the animal suffered from history of retained placenta compared to cow with no history of retained placenta and 3.1 times in cross-breed than indigenous breeds. In conclusion, the study demonstrates that the prevalence of bovine brucellosis was low in Becho district. However, poor understanding of brucellosis among communities and a high level of risky practice might result in an increased transmission between animals and zoonoses in risky group personnels. Thus, awareness creation about impacts of the disease, zoonotic importance, risk factors and method of prevention were recommended.

Keywords: Bovine brucellosis, cattle, I-ELISA, RBPT, Risk factors, sero-prevalence

Uncontrolled Bovine Tuberculosis Remains a Challenge for Dairy Development and Public Health in Central Ethiopia

Gizat Almaw1,2,*, AndrewJK Conlan6, Gobena Ameni4, Balako Gumi4,Alemseged Alemu1, Sintayehu Guta1, Solomon Gebre1,
Abebe Olani1, Abebe Garoma1, Dereje Shegu1,Letebrhan Yimesgen1, Tafesse Koran1, Demeke Nigussie7, James LN Wood6, Tamrat Abebe2,Adane Mihret2,3, Stefan Berg5 and the ETHICOBOTSconsortium

1National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center, Sebeta, Ethiopia

2Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Addis Abeba University, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia

3Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

4Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

5Bacteriology Department, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Weybridge, United Kingdom

6Disease Dynamics Unit, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

7Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia



A cross sectional one-stage cluster sampling survey was carried out to estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in dairy farms in six regions of central Ethiopia. The survey, which was by far the largest in the region up to date, took place from March 2016 to May 2017 and included Tuberculin testing and collection of additional herd and animal level data by questionnaire to identify potential risk factors contributing to bTB transmission. We applied the comparative intradermal skin-test (CIDT) using > 4mm cut-off for considering an individual animal as positive for bTB; at least one reactor animal was required for a herd to be considered bTB positive. Two hundred ninety nine dairy herds in the six regions were randomly selected, from which 5,675 cattle were tested. A Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) with herd level random effect was used to analyse risk factors. The overall prevalence of bTB at the herd level was 60% (n=180; 95% CI:54-66%) while it was 31% (n=1776; 95% CI:30-33%) at the individual animal level. Herd size (OR:35.76, p-value: < 0.01), age (OR:8.24, p-value :< 0.01), and bTB history (OR:4.79, p-value: 0.022) were identified as significant risk factors. The result of this compressive study indicated high prevalence of bTB in central Ethiopia reaffirming the observation made by smaller previous studies and lays the foundation for potential future development of control strategies.

Keywords: Bovine tuberculosis, Dairy cattle, Prevalence, Risk factors