NAHDIC has been engaged in research activities over the last 20 years and has contributed more than 350 published articles to the scientific community.  Research activities at NAHDIC focus on problem solving and generating information and data to support disease control and prevention measures.  Research initiatives are conducted with NAHDIC technical partners found both within the country and abroad. This includes collaborations with university students. An average of 30 undergraduate and post-graduate (MSc and PhD) Ethiopian university students conduct their research at NAHDIC per year. Currently, there are about 24 active ongoing research projects. Some of the topics are done on bovine tuberculosis, PPR, CBBP, FMD, BVD, IBR, brucellosis and infectious bronchitis. 

 

Prevalence of Ixodid Ticks and Trpanosomosis in Camels in Southern Range Lands of Ethiopia

Solomon Gebre1, Sileshi Mekonnen1,Kaaya G.P.2, Tilahun Tekle1, Yilma Jobre3

1National Animal Health Research Center, 

P.O.Box 04, Sebeta, Ethiopia

2International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology, 

P.O.Box, 30772, Nairobi, Kenya

 

3International Livestock research Institute. 

P.O.Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

 

Abstract

The prevalence of ixodid ticks and trypanosomosis of camels was studied in the semi-arid rangelands of southern Ethiopia between 1995 and 1996. A total of 24077 ticks were collected from 510 camels aged between 6 months and 15 years. Eleven species of ticks were identified. Rhipicephalus pulchellus (59.1 %) was the most abundant tick followed by Hyalomma dromedarii (21.2%), Amblyomma gemma (12.5%), Hyalomma marginaturn rufipes (3.5%) and Hyalomma truncatum (2.8%). The highest numbers of ticks on camels occurred during the months from February to May with a peak during April. The other identified tick species were in very small numbers. Blood smears from 320 clinically sick camels were examined for haemoparasites out of which 142 (44.4%) were infected with Trypanosoma evansi, 3 (0.93%) with T. congolense and 2 (0.63%) with T. brucei. No tick-borne haemoparasites were detected. The possible ways of controlling ticks and trypanosomosis (T. evansi) in camel population are discussed in line with the livestock production system and climatic condition of the study area.

Keywords: Ethiopia; Camels (livestock); Rangelands; Seasons; Species; Dromedaries; Trypanosomiasis; Metastigmata; Ixodidae

Larvicidal Effect of the Leaf Latex of Aloe yavellana Reynolds and Its Major Compounds against Amblyomma variegatum (Ixodidae

Tibebu Hailesillassie, Daniel Bisrat, Kaleab Asres*

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, School of pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, P. O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

 

 

Abstract

The leaf latex of Aloe yavellana Reynolds is traditionally used for the treatment of various illnesses of humans and domestic animals in Ethiopia. In the present study, the latex and two major compounds isolated from it, namely, aloin A/B and microdontin A/B were assessed for their larvicidal activity against Amblyomma variegatum tick larvae using a larval packet test (LPT). The LC50 and LC99 of the latex were found to be 35.82 ± 2.27 and 83.48 ± 3.95mg/ml, respectively. Although microdontin A/B showed better larvicidal activity (LC50 = 89.40 ± 4.45mg/ml) than aloin A/B (LC50 = 257.69 ± 6.31mg/ml), neither of the isolated compounds was as active as the latex suggesting that the compounds acted synergistically or minor compounds with potent larvicidal activity may exist in the latex. The results confirmed that the leaf latex of A. yavellana and its isolated compounds could have the potential to be used as larvicidal against A. variegatum ticks.

Keywords: Aloe yavellana Reynolds Amblyomma variegatum Larvicidal Aloin A/B Microdontin A/B Larva packet test (LPT)

National Sheep and Goat Ecto-Parasite Control Projec

S. Gebre1, M. Sahale1, N. Mekonen1, A.Sirak1, Y. Begashaw1, G. Abie1, G.Abichu, A.Mekonen1, Y. G/ kidan1, A.Alemu1, E.Zeben1

 

1National Animal Health Research Center, 

P.O.Box 04, Sebeta, Ethiopia

 

 

Abstract

The small ruminant ecto-parasite control program or project r4which is carried out in collaboration with all administrative regions of Ethiopia have reduced the prevalence of Ecto-parasites by 24.73% in 2006 EC. The pickled skin defects due to Ecto-parasites are also reduced by 10.9%. Nevertheless flaying and post slaughter defects has increased by 5.7 % and 4.6 % respectively. This indicates that skin and hide extension development activities should be carried out alongwiith the ecto-parasite control program to achieve the desired goal.  The foreign currency earning of the country also increased since the start of the project, thus Ethiopia got 132 million US dollars in the end of the fiscal year. In order to achieve the Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP) for the leather sector all concerned stakeholders should do their maximum effort for better results.

Alternative Control Methods of Gastrointestinal Nematode Infections in Small Ruminants: Biological Method and Use of Medicinal Plant Extracts

Ermias Worku1*, Ashenafi Kiros1,Hagos Asgedom1, Biniam Tadesse1 

1National Animal Health Research Center, P.O.Box 04, Sebeta, Ethiopia

2College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, Debreziet, Ethiopia

 

 

Abstract

Diseases caused by gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) in livestock are a major production constraint, causing economic losses, especially in small ruminants in the tropics and subtropics. The infection of sheep and goats by nematodes is rampant in most African countries, where the environmental conditions are conducive to nematode growth and transmission. In general, GINs reduce productivity of small ruminants due to lowering fertility, reduction in milk production and loss of weight when feed intake is reduced. Currently, the conventional control strategy for GIN infections is the use of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. However, several problems associated with the use of these anthelmintics have been observed worldwide. Among these problems, development of drug resistance to the available drugs is widespread. Development of resistance has been attributed to the extensive therapeutic use of anthelmentics. Consequently an alternative control measures are much needed. Medicinal plants may become good alternatives for modern synthetic anthelmintics if their efficacy is proved scientifically under controlled studies. Plant-based drugs are believed to be less toxic to the host and end-users, easily available, biodegradable, cheaper and eco-friendly. Several families of plants such as the Lamiaceae, Caesalpiniaceae and Meliaceae are being investigated for their efficacy against various helminth parasites. Methodologies used for treating animals with plant materials includes the provision of fresh, conserved or dried plants, the use of crude aqueous and solvent extracts and administration of fractionated materials from the crude products. In addition to herbal medicines, biological agents have shown positive results in controlling GINs such as fungus Duddingtonia flagrans and bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. The objective of this review is therefore to highlight some advances in the study of herbal medications and biocontrolling agents including the methodology as well as outlines future research fields.

 

Keywords: Anthelminthics, Biological control, Helminthes, livestock, medicinal plants, nematodes

The Prevalence and Economic Impact of Bovine Fasciolosis in Mekelle Municipal Abattoir

Ashenafi K.1*, Alemu A.2, Hagos A.1, Biniam T., Aklilu
F.3

 

1National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Centre, Ethiopia

2School of Veterinary Medicine, Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia

 

3College of veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University Ethiopia 

 

Abstract

A cross sectional survey was conducted at Mekelle Municipal abattoir in Tigray region, northern Ethiopia, from November 2007, to April 2008 to determine the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis and to assess its economic impact. A total of 668 bovine liver were examined in the abattoir and267 (39.97 %) were found to be affected by fasciolosis. Out of the total positives 211 (79%) and 56(21%) were adult and young cattle respectively, no statistical significance difference between age groups (p>0.05). Study shown 182 (68.1%) and 85 (31.8%) were positive from high land and low land respectively. Based on the body condition animals having body score 1, 2 and 3 were found 10.4%, 79.4% and 15.9% positive respectively. F. hepatica, F. gigantic species recovered from infected livers were 62.1%, 13% and 11%, mixed infection and 13.1% immature fluke. In the present study, no direct relationship between fluke count and magnitude of liver lesion in moderately affected liver. The magnitude of livers affected by fasciolosis is 96 (35.8%), 112(42.2 %) and 59 (22%) light, moderate and severe lesion respectively. From the total feacal samples of cattle examined 50 (7.4 %) were found egg positive that of 267 (39. 9%) post mort empositive. The economic loss due to fasciolosis was summarized as 122, 414.47 Ethiopian Birr during the study period and 183.25 per head of the animal. This is obviously great economic loss. In the study area bovine fasciolosis significantly prevalent parasitic disease affecting the health, productivity of animals and has economic impact.

Keywords: Fasciolosis; Prevalence; Bovine; Post- Mortem; Coprology; diagnosis; Mekelle and economic loss

Seasonal Variation of Ticks on calves at Sebeta in Western Shoa Zone, Ethiopia

Solomon Gebre1, Nigist Mokonnen1, Kassa Bayou1

 

1National Animal Health Research Center, 

P.O.Box 04, Sebeta, Ethiopia

 

 

Abstract

The prevalence and seasonal variation of ticks in cattle was monitored between Jannuary 2000 and December 2001 at monthly interval on 10 East African Zebu (Bos indicus) heifers in Sebeta. A total of 9884 ticks, which belongs to 12 different species of four genera were collected and identified at National Animal Health Research Center.  Boophilus constituted (37.26%), Ambloymma (30.06%), Rhipicephalus (23.46%) and Hyalomma (9.23%). Tick species mostly encountered were Boophilus decoloratus (37.26%), Amblyomma variegatum (29.15%), Rhipicephalus evertsi-evertsi (11.31%), Rhipicephalus simus (10.66%), Hyalomma marginatum rufipes (6.87%) and Hylomma truncatum (2.35%). Other tick species found in small number in order of their prevalence were Amblyomma cohaerens (0.91%), Rhipicephalus pulchellus (0.83%), Rhipicephalus sanguineous (0.56%), Rhipicephalus pravus (0.56%), Rhipicephalus praetexatus (0.04%) and Amblyomma lepidum (0.01%). The dewlap and ventral parts of the body of the cattle were found to be the most favorable feeding sites for most of the ticks collected. The infestation rate of these ticks was generally low during the dry season and high during the rainy season. Ambylomma variegatum and Boophilus decoloratus ticks were abundant during the rainy season with pick counts in August and June respectively. Blood smear examination of cattle infested with ticks showed Anaplasma, Babesia and Theileria species at prevalence rate of 61.4%, 5.6% and 33% respectively.

Key words: Cattle, seasonal variation, tick, tick borne disease

Study on Bovine Trypanosomosis and Tse Tse Fly Challenge in Darimu District of Birbir Valley, South Western Ethiopia

Teferi Benti* and Biniam Tadesse

1National Animal Health Research Center, P.O.Box 04, Sebeta, Ethiopia

 

 

Abstract

This study was undertaken on bovine trypanosomiasis and its vectors at Birbir valley located in Darmu district, Illubababor zone. The parasitological examination was conducted using Buffy coat technique while vector survey was conducted using odour baited Monopyramidal trap. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in cattle, to determine fly density and to identify associated risk factors. From 392 Blood samples were collected, 45(11.5%) were found to be positive by Buffy coat technique and trypanosome species identified by their motility were T.congolense 40 (88.9%) and T.vivax 5(11.1 %) and Trypanosoma congolense was the dominant species. A total of 52 Monopyramidal traps were deployed and 1836 (73%) tsetse flies and 676(26.9%) biting flies were caught. From flies captured, 971(52.9%), 540(29.4%) and 325(17.7%) Glossina morsitans sub morsitans of savannah flies, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes of reverine and Glossina pallidipes of savannah species were identified respectively. The overall apparent densities fly / trap / day (FTD) were 17.7 and 6.5 for tsetse and biting flies respectively. There was no statically significant difference (P > 0.05) in the prevalence of trypanosome infection between sex group while statistically significant difference was observed between age group(x2=41.0, p=0.000, p<0.05). The mean PCV of the parasitemic and aparasitemic animals were 21.3% and 24.3% respectively .The difference between the mean PCV value of the parasitemic and apparasitemic animals were statistically significant(P<0.05). Designing and implementation of trypanosomosis control should be targeted to the major cyclically transmitting tsetse flies. 

Keywords: Darimu; Cattle; Trypanosomiasis; Prevalence; Vector

The Prevalence and Economic Impact of Bovine Fasciolosis in Mekelle Municipal Abattoir

Ashenafi K.1*, Alemu A.2, Hagos A.1, Biniam T., Aklilu
F.3

 

1National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Centre, Ethiopia

2School of Veterinary Medicine, Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia

 

3College of veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University Ethiopia 

 

Abstract

A cross sectional survey was conducted at Mekelle Municipal abattoir in Tigray region, northern Ethiopia, from November 2007, to April 2008 to determine the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis and to assess its economic impact. A total of 668 bovine liver were examined in the abattoir and267 (39.97 %) were found to be affected by fasciolosis. Out of the total positives 211 (79%) and 56(21%) were adult and young cattle respectively, no statistical significance difference between age groups (p>0.05). Study shown 182 (68.1%) and 85 (31.8%) were positive from high land and low land respectively. Based on the body condition animals having body score 1, 2 and 3 were found 10.4%, 79.4% and 15.9% positive respectively. F. hepatica, F. gigantic species recovered from infected livers were 62.1%, 13% and 11%, mixed infection and 13.1% immature fluke. In the present study, no direct relationship between fluke count and magnitude of liver lesion in moderately affected liver. The magnitude of livers affected by fasciolosis is 96 (35.8%), 112(42.2 %) and 59 (22%) light, moderate and severe lesion respectively. From the total feacal samples of cattle examined 50 (7.4 %) were found egg positive that of 267 (39. 9%) post mort empositive. The economic loss due to fasciolosis was summarized as 122, 414.47 Ethiopian Birr during the study period and 183.25 per head of the animal. This is obviously great economic loss. In the study area bovine fasciolosis significantly prevalent parasitic disease affecting the health, productivity of animals and has economic impact.

Keywords: Fasciolosis; Prevalence; Bovine; Post- Mortem; Coprology; diagnosis; Mekelle and economic loss

Seasonal Variation of Ticks on calves at Sebeta in Western Shoa Zone, Ethiopia

Solomon Gebre1, Nigist Mokonnen1, Kassa Bayou1

 

1National Animal Health Research Center, 

P.O.Box 04, Sebeta, Ethiopia

 

 

Abstract

The prevalence and seasonal variation of ticks in cattle was monitored between Jannuary 2000 and December 2001 at monthly interval on 10 East African Zebu (Bos indicus) heifers in Sebeta. A total of 9884 ticks, which belongs to 12 different species of four genera were collected and identified at National Animal Health Research Center.  Boophilus constituted (37.26%), Ambloymma (30.06%), Rhipicephalus (23.46%) and Hyalomma (9.23%). Tick species mostly encountered were Boophilus decoloratus (37.26%), Amblyomma variegatum (29.15%), Rhipicephalus evertsi-evertsi (11.31%), Rhipicephalus simus (10.66%), Hyalomma marginatum rufipes (6.87%) and Hylomma truncatum (2.35%). Other tick species found in small number in order of their prevalence were Amblyomma cohaerens (0.91%), Rhipicephalus pulchellus (0.83%), Rhipicephalus sanguineous (0.56%), Rhipicephalus pravus (0.56%), Rhipicephalus praetexatus (0.04%) and Amblyomma lepidum (0.01%). The dewlap and ventral parts of the body of the cattle were found to be the most favorable feeding sites for most of the ticks collected. The infestation rate of these ticks was generally low during the dry season and high during the rainy season. Ambylomma variegatum and Boophilus decoloratus ticks were abundant during the rainy season with pick counts in August and June respectively. Blood smear examination of cattle infested with ticks showed Anaplasma, Babesia and Theileria species at prevalence rate of 61.4%, 5.6% and 33% respectively.

Key words: Cattle, seasonal variation, tick, tick borne disease